Short Call Long Put Strategy

 


The cc engine is a descendent of the famous and Porsche Group C racer. It should be understood that fibers may be increased in the raised spots of fibers linearly in I-shape from the surface of the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer for the pressure-sensitive adhesive tape or pressure-sensitive adhesive film, or that they may have any other form of teeth, shafts or loops to protrude from the total surface. Die Unternehmung , Vol. Typen von Derivaten 1. In finance, a short sale is the sale of an asset that the seller does not own.

Optionen Zitat


Einsatzbereiche von Derivaten IV. Abbildung von Derivaten in der Bilanz I. Grundlagen Derivate synonym Termingeschäfte sind abgeleitete Wertpapiere , d. In jüngster Zeit wurden auch zunehmend so genannte Wetterderivate auf Temperaturen oder Niederschlagsmengen , Stromderivate auf Strompreise und Volatilitätsderivate auf die Schwankungsbreite der Rendite n des Underlyings in den Handel eingeführt.

Charakteristisch für ein Derivat ist das zeitliche Auseinanderfallen des Geschäftsabschlusses im Sinne des Abschlusses eines bilateralen Vertrags und der Erfüllung durch Lieferung des Underlyings gegen die vereinbarte Bezahlung. Ferner ist bei manchen Derivaten die Erfüllung von der Ausübung eines Wahlrechts einer der beiden Parteien abhängig.

Ist die Erfüllung des Geschäfts abhängig bzw. Beispiele für unbedingte Termingeschäfte sind Forwards, Futures und Swaps, während Option en als wichtigste bedingte Termingeschäfte anzusehen sind. Es ist bei Derivaten nicht unbedingt erforderlich, dass bei Erfüllung tatsächlich das Gut z.

Alternativ dazu ist auch ein Barausgleich Cash Settlement möglich. Hier wird statt der Lieferung der Ware gegen Bezahlung der Unterschiedsbetrag zwischen den Ansprüchen der beiden Vertragsparteien in bar gezahlt. Eine ausführliche Darstellung dieser Grundlagen sowie vertiefende Ausführungen zu den folgenden Themen findet man z. Typen von Derivaten 1. Die Partei, die am Liefertermin die Ware erhält, wird auch als Long bezeichnet, die Gegenseite entsprechend als Short.

Forwards weisen also symmetrische Zahlungsprofile auf, d. Bei Forwards findet das Settlement erst am Ende der Laufzeit statt. Dies führte dazu, dass die ursprünglich bilateral gehandelten Forwards stärker standardisiert und zum Handel an Börse n eingeführt wurden. Diese Kontrakte werden als Futures bezeichnet.

Der wesentliche Unterschied zu Forwards ist das tägliche Settlement der Futures, d. Sinkt dieses unter einen vorgegebenen Mindeststand, erhält der Inhaber die Aufforderung zum Nachschuss. Kann er dieser nicht nachkommen, wird seine Position geschlossen. Die Gegenseite des Kontrakts ist davon nicht betroffen, da die Börse in die Position eintritt.

Das bei Forwards bestehende Ausfallrisiko ist damit erheblich gemindert. Ein Swap ist eine bindende bilaterale Vereinbarung über den Tausch von Zahlungsströmen. Das einfachste Beispiel für einen Swap ist der Tausch von festen gegen variable Zinszahlungen auf einen bestimmten Nennwert. Die variable Zahlung wird dabei an einen Referenzzins wie z. Bei Abschluss eines Swaps ist dann der entsprechende Festzins zu vereinbaren.

Während der Laufzeit des Kontrakts findet dann zu den so genannten Reset Dates eine Anpassung des variable n Zinssatzes statt.

Auf der Basis dieses neuen Zinssatzes erfolgt dann eine Ausgleichszahlung zwischen den Parteien, deren Richtung vom Verhältnis des variable n und des festen Zinssatzes abhängt. Unbedingte Terminkontrakte sind meist so konstruiert, dass bei Vertragsabschluss keine Zahlungen zwischen den Vertragsparteien erfolgen, der Kontraktwert also null ist.

Dies wird durch die geeignete Wahl des Forward- oder Futurespreises bzw. Der Wert eines solchen Terminkontrakts muss jedoch in der Zukunft nicht null bleiben, sondern kann je nach Wertentwicklung des Underlyings positiv oder negativ werden vgl.

Call und einer Verkaufsoption engl. Der Inhaber einer Kaufoption hat das Recht, nicht jedoch die Pflicht, das Underlying zu einem bestimmten Festpreis, dem so genannten Basispreis , zu bestimmten Terminen während der Optionsfrist zu kaufen. Kann dieses Recht jederzeit ausgeübt werden, nennt man die Option amerikanisch, falls es nur am Ende der Optionsfrist ausgeübt werden kann, europäisch.

Der Inhaber einer Verkaufsoption hat das Recht, das Underlying zum Basispreis zu verkaufen, wobei man wieder zwischen amerikanischem und europäischem Optionstyp unterscheidet. Entsprechend ist der Verkäufer Stillhalter in beiden Fällen die Option short. Das Optionsrecht wird nur dann ausgeübt, wenn dem Inhaber dadurch wirtschaftliche Vorteile erwachsen. Jedoch legen einige Belege, wie im Hintergrundteil angedeutet, nahe, dass zumindest die EPO-Rezeptor-Dimerisierung ein Ereignis ist, das für die Aktivierung wahrscheinlich erforderlich ist.

Die vorliegende Offenbarung stützt diese Vorstellung ebenfa As used herein, the term "activation of an EPO receptor" means one or more molecular processes which passes through an EPO receptor that lead to a transmission of a signal to the interior of a receptor-bearing cell, wherein the signal concerning eventually one or more alterations which brings about the cellular physiology.

Presently, the molecular events that lead to signaling by the EPO receptor perform poorly understood. However, put a few documents, as indicated in the background section, suggests that at least the EPO receptor dimerization is an event that is likely to be required for activation. Wie in As in lls. Deshalb beseitigt das Ersetzen des intakten, bivalenten Antikörpers durch ein entsprechendes monovalentes Fragment die proliferative Antwort. Therefore, the replacement of the intact, bivalent antibody eliminated the proliferative response by a corresponding monovalent fragment.

In addition Mab 71 inhibits activation of the EPO receptor at high concentrations. These two observations support the dimerization model of activation for the EPO receptor. Mab 71 has been shown that it interacts with a synthetic peptide of residues 49 to 78 of the human EPO-R see Example 6. Molecules that cross-link two EPO-R molecules by binding to residues 49 to 78, the invention provide. These molecules are antibodies or bivalent fragments thereof that have the property of two EPO receptors crosslink by binding to residues which are encompassed by the region between residues 49 and 78, resulting in dimerization and activation of the EPO receptor.

EPO receptors, to which reference is made in this description will preferably be mammalian EPO receptors of and in a particularly preferred embodiment, the human EPO receptor. It is understood that analogs of human EPO receptors are also encompassed by the invention.

Such analogs are prepared by insertions, deletions, extensions or substitutions of amino acids in the human EPO receptor sequence. Patent 5,, to Yoshimura et al. Im allgemeinen können EPO-R-Analoga die Aminosäureänderungen in Regionen aufweisen, die verschieden sind von den Antikörperbindungsdomänen, die für die Aktivierung erfoderlich sind, wobei die Analoga die Sekundär- und Tertiärstruktur des menschlichen EPO-Rezeptors beibehalten, durch die Antikörper der vorliegenden Erfindung erkannt werden.

In general, EPO-R analogs can have amino acid changes in regions other than the antibody binding domains erfoderlich for activation, wherein said analogs retain secondary and tertiary structure of the human EPO receptor, recognized by the antibodies of the present invention become. It has been shown that Mab 71 interacts with a synthetic peptide of residues 49 to 78 of the human EPO-R see Example 6. Deshalb ist es wahrscheinlich, dass EPO-R-Analoga die Änderungen der Aminosäurereste aufweisen, die verschieden von denjenigen an den Positionen 49 bis 78 sind, und die die Sekundär- und Tertiärstruktur des menschlichen EPO-Rezeptors beibehalten, von Mab 71 erkannt werden.

Therefore, it is likely that EPO-R analogs having changes in amino acid residues that are different from those at positions , and maintained the secondary and tertiary structure of the human EPO receptor may be recognized by Mab 71st Die Numerierung der Aminosäurereste des menschlichen EPOR-Polypeptides, wie sie hierin verwendet wird, beginnt mit dem Prolin an Position 1, das nach Abspaltung des 25 Aminosäuren umfassenden Signalpeptids der N-terminale Rest ist.

The numbering of the amino acid residues of the human EPOR polypeptide as used herein starts with proline at position 1, which is residue after cleavage of the 25 amino acid signal peptide of the N-terminal. Deshalb ist es wahrscheinlich, dass Mab 71 ein Epitop auf dem EPO-R erkennt, das ganz oder teilweise durch diese Sequenz definiert ist.

Therefore, it is likely that Mab 71 recognizes an epitope on EPO-R which is entirely or partially defined by this sequence. As used herein, the term "epitope" the region which is bound by an antibody of an EPO-R, wherein binding prevents association of a second antibody with the EPO-R.

Die Erfindung stellt auch polyklonale Antikörper und monoklonale Antikörper und bivalente Fragmente davon bereit. The invention also provides polyclonal antibodies and monoclonal antibodies and bivalent fragments thereof. Antibody fragments comprise those fragments which activate an EPO receptor by binding to an epitope on a peptide comprising amino acid residues of the EPO-R.

Es sind auch humanisierte Antikörper umfasst, die typischerweise durch rekombinante Verfahren hergestellt werden, wobei menschliche Sequenzen einen Teil von oder einen ganzen Antikörper der Erfindung umfassen.

Also included are humanized antibodies, typically produced by recombinant methods, wherein human sequences comprise part of or a whole antibody of the invention.

Die Antikörper der Erfindung können auch eine an ihnen angebrachte nachweisbare Markierung aufweisen. The antibodies of the invention may also include an attached to them detectable label.

Eine solche Markierung kann eine fluoreszierende z. Fluoresceinisothiocyanat, FITC , enzymatische z. Meerrettichperoxidase , Affinitäts- z. Biotin oder Isotopenmarkierung z. Such label may be a fluorescent e. Von der Erfindung sind auch Hybridom-Zellinien umfasst, die einen monoklonalen Antikörper der Erfindung herstellen. The generation of hybridoma cell lines that produce monoclonal antibodies to human EPO-R will be described in Example 3.

Juli unter der Zugangsnr. Die Antikörper der vorliegenden Erfindung sind beim Diagnostizieren von Anämie und von anderen Krankheiten nützlich, die durch einen funktionsgestörten EPO-R gekennzeichnet sind.

The antibodies of the present invention are in diagnosing anemia and other diseases useful, which are characterized by dysfunctional EPO-R. Die biologischen Proben umfassen Gewebeproben, intakte Zellen oder Extrakte davon.

The biological samples include tissue specimens, intact cells, or extracts thereof. Antikörper können als ein Teil eines diagnostischen Kits verwendet werden, um die Anwesenheit von EPO-Rezeptoren in einer biologischen Probe nachzuweisen. Antibodies can be used as a part of a diagnostic kit to detect the presence of EPO receptors in a biological sample. Solche Kits verwenden Antikörper mit einer angebrachten Markierung, um einen Nachweis zu ermöglichen.

Such kits employ antibodies having an attached label to allow detection. Die Antikörper sind beim Identifizieren von normalen oder abnormalen Rezeptoren nützlich. The antibodies are useful in identifying normal or abnormal receptors. The presence of abnormal receptors in a biological sample may indicate disorders such as Diamond Blackfan anemia, where it is believed that the EPO receptor is dysfunctional.

Antikörper der Erfindung sind beim Behandeln von Störungen nützlich, die durch niedrige Konzentrationen der Erythrozyten gekennzeichnet sind.

Antibodies of the invention are useful in treating disorders characterized by low concentrations of the erythrocytes. A method of modulating the endogenous activity of an EPO receptor in a mammal, preferably methods of increasing the activity of an EPO receptor are encompassed by the invention.

Im allgemeinen kann jeder durch Erythropoietin behandelbare Zustand, wie beispielsweise Anämie, ebenfalls durch die Antikörper der Erfindung behandelt werden. In general, each treatable by erythropoietin state, such as anemia, may also be treated by the antibodies of the invention.

Therapeutische Antikörper werden in einer Menge und über einen Verabreichungsweg verabreicht, der mit Blick auf die Natur und Schwere des zu behandelnden Zustandes geeignet ist und der durch einen Fachmann festgelegt werden kann. Therapeutic antibodies are administered in an amount and via a route of administration which is suitable in view of the nature and severity of the condition being treated and can be determined by a skilled person.

Bevorzugterweise erfolgt die Verabreichung über eine Injektion, entweder subkutan, intramuskulär oder intravenös. Preferably, the administration is by injection, either subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously. Die Erfindung stellt eine pharmazeutische Zusammensetzung bereit, die eine therapeutisch wirksame Menge eines Antikörpers umfasst, der einen EPO-R aktiviert zusammen mit einem pharmazeutisch akzeptablen Adjuvans, wobei als das Adjuvans eines oder mehr als eines der folgenden ausgewählt werden kann: The invention provides a pharmaceutical composition which comprises a therapeutically effective amount of an antibody which activates an EPO-R together with a pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvant, wherein as the adjuvant, one or more may be selected as one of the following: Eine "therapeutisch wirksame Menge" bedeutet, wie hierin verwendet, die Menge Antikörper, die eine therapeutische Wirkung im Hinblick auf einen gegebenen Zustand und ein gegebenes Verabreichungsschema bereitstellt.

A "therapeutically effective amount", as used herein, the amount of antibody which provides a therapeutic effect with respect to a given state and a given dosing regimen. Bei der vorliegenden Erfindung ist die therapeutische Wirkung die Stimulierung der Produktion von Erythrozyten, wie durch einen Anstieg des Hämatokrit bei dem behandelten Patienten belegt wird.

In the present invention, the therapeutic effect is to stimulate the production of erythrocytes, as demonstrated by a rise in hematocrit in the patient treated. In einer bevorzugten Ausführungsform sind die Antikörper humanisierte oder menschliche Antikörper, die unter Verwendung von den Fachleuten bekannten Vorgehensweisen hergestellt werden können. In a preferred embodiment, the antibodies are humanized or human antibodies known in the art using procedures can be produced. Pharmazeutisch akzeptable Adjuvantien sind den Fachleuten bekannt und werden umfassend in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mack, Easton, PA im Überblick dargestellt.

Pharmaceutically acceptable adjuvants are known to those skilled and are fully described in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences, 18th ed. Mack, Easton, PA shown at a glance. Die folgenden Beispiele werden angeführt, um die Erfindung vollständiger zu veranschaulichen, werden aber nicht als deren Umfang beschränkend aufgefasst.

The following examples are given to illustrate the invention more fully, but are not construed as limiting the scope thereof. Herstellung von löslichem menschlichem Erythropoietinrezeptor Production of soluble human erythropoietin. Isolierung von Klonen zur Expression von löslichem menschlichem Erythropoietinrezeptor A. Isolation of clones for expression of soluble human erythropoietin receptor. Using a clone, was the human erythropoietin receptor as described by Jones et al, above, includes described using the PCR technique to obtain a clone for expression of soluble human Erythropoietimezeptor sHuEPOR.

The primers for PCR amplification of human erythropoietin were: The PCR reactions were performed using 2. Clones containing the desired insert were verified by DNA sequence analysis.

The primers for PCR amplification were: The reaction products were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the band at about 1. Die Rekombinanten wurden mittels Restriktionsanalyse identifiziert und sequenziert, um zu bestätigen, dass die erwünschten Inserts vorhanden waren. The recombinants were identified by restriction analysis and sequenced to confirm that the desired inserts were present.

Zehn Mikrogramm jedes Plasmids wurden unabhängig durch Kalziumphosphat-vermittelte Transfektion Wigler et al. Cell 11 in CHO-Zellen eingeführt. Ten micrograms of each plasmid were 11, Wigler et al. Cell introduced into CHO cells by calcium phosphate-mediated independent transfection. Einzelne Kolonien wurden auf der Grundlage der Expression des Dihydrofolatreduktasegens aus dem Vektor selektioniert. Individual colonies were selected based upon expression of the dihydrofolate reductase from the vector.

And followed by Western immunoblotting using affinity-purified antibody. Die Zelllinien, die bei diesem Test positiv waren, wurden für eine weitere Expansion selektioniert. The cell lines that were positive in this test were selected for further expansion. Die Erzeugung von konditionierten Medien, die löslichen menschlichen EPOR umfassten, wurde sowohl in Rollerflaschen als auch in einem Hohlfaser-Bioreaktor durchgeführt.

Generation of conditioned media containing soluble human EPOR included, was performed in both roller bottles and a hollow fiber bioreactor. The roller bottles were washed with 2 x 10 7 cells in ml growth medium seeded DMEM: After reaching confluence after days, the media was replaced with ml DMBM: Konditioniertes Medium wurde nach Tagen geerntet und durch frisches, serumfreies Medium ersetzt.

Conditioned media was harvested after days and replaced with fresh serum-free medium. Die zweiten und dritten Ernten wurden gesammelt. The second and third harvests were collected. Der pH wurde bei 7,3 gehalten. The pH was maintained at 7. Von Tag 12 nach dem Animpfen an wurden die Zellen von Serum entwöhnt, um serumfreie konditionierte Medien zu erzeugen.

From day 12 after inoculation of the cells were weaned off of serum to generate serum-free conditioned media. Das Ernten der konditionierten Medien begann am Tag Harvesting of conditioned media began on day 17th. Aufreinigung von löslichem menschlichem Erythropoietin-Rezeptor Purification of soluble human erythropoietin receptor.

Were made of soluble recombinant human EPOR four different preparations. In the first preparation is epoxy-activated Sepharose 6 B Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ essentially according to the manufacturer's instructions to recombinant human erythropoietin rHuEPO is coupled.

Dieser Schlamm wird auf pH 10,8 titriert und dann über Nacht bei Zimmertemperatur gemischt. This slurry is titrated to pH Any remaining reactive groups are then blocked by addition of ethanolamine to a final concentration of 1 M and mixed at room temperature for 4 hours. The coupled resin Epoxy-EPO is packed into a column and washed with alternating cycles of 0. Zwei UV -absorbierende Peaks eluieren mit diesem Puffer.

Two UV absorbing peaks elute with this buffer. In the second preparation, a larger Epoxy-EPO column is made. Alle verbleibenden reaktiven Gruppen werden dann durch Zugabe von Ethanolamin auf eine Endkonzentration von 1 M blockiert und Minuten lang bei Zimmertemperatur gemischt.

Any remaining reactive groups are then blocked by addition of ethanolamine to a final concentration of 1 M and mixed at room temperature for minutes. The column is then equilibrated with TBS. Der eluierte Peak wird gesammelt und fach mit H 2 O verdünnt. The eluted peak is pooled and diluted 20 fold with H 2 O.

In the third preparation, the same Epoxy-EPO column is used which is used in the preparation. Es wird auf die gleiche Weise wie bei Zubereitung 2 verarbeitet.

It is processed in the same manner as in Preparation 2nd. In the fourth preparation 7. The filtrate is then diluted with 7. Solid NH 4 2 SO 4 is added to the pooled fractions to a final concentration of 1. The filtrate is loaded onto a 60 ml Phenyl Sepharose 6 column low sub, Pharmacia and with a decreasing gradient of 1. The resultant solution is filtered through a 0. Zubereitung und Screening von Hybridoma-Zellinien Preparation and screening of hybridoma cell lines. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay EIA.

EIAs were initially performed to determine serum antibody Ab titres of individual animals, and later for screening of potential hybridomas. Fifty ul of Ab were added to each reaction cup.

For examiner Tung hybridomas a reaction cup was retained as a conjugate control, and a second well as a positive Ab control. The plates were incubated again for 1 hour with rocking at room temperature, then 4 times using a 1 xx-Waschlösungs- preparation of a concentrate Kirkegaard and Perrry Laboratories, Inc.

Goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies against the heavy and light chain, conjugated with horseradish peroxidase Boehringer Mannheim Biochemicals, Indianapolis, IN and 1: Hybridomas were selected as positive if optical density having a value greater than 5-fold above background. Mice were bled later on the tail blood 9 days, and the serum antibody Ab titers were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays EIA.

When the half-maximal titre for each mouse rose above , individual animals were selected for the hybridoma preparation. The three animals 7, 8 and 9 which were used to generate the hybrids of interest 71A and 73A required after 5 weeks and after 29 weeks additional refreshes using Serum Ab titers were followed 9 days after each boost.

Die Endtiter dieser Mäuse vor der Fusion betrugen , und bei den Tieren 7, 8 bzw. The final titer of these mice prior to fusion were , and in the animals 7, 8 and 9 respectively.

The animals 7, 8 and 9 were 8 weeks after the last boost 25 ug sHuEPOR lot 3 was injected intravenously. When the cells were released from the spleen capsule into the media, they were removed from the bag and by a 70 to nylon mesh cell strainer Becton Dickinson and Company, Lincoln Park, NJ passed.

Es wurde frisches Medium in die Tasche eingebracht und der Vorgang fortgesetzt, bis der gesamte Zellgehalt der Milzen freigesetzt war. It was placed in the bag and the process continued until the entire cell content of the spleens were released fresh medium. Für die erste Fusion wurden die Splenocyten von Tier 9 verwendet; For the first fusion, splenocytes from animal 9 were used; für die zweite Fusion wurden die Splenocyten von den Tieren 7 und 8 vereinigt.

The medium was aspirated from the cell pellet and 2 ml of polyethylene glycol PEG molecular weight; Boehringer Mannheim Biochemicals, Indianapolis, IN for fusion 1 and 3. Cells were lysed by single drops from a 5 ml pipette to ten tissue culture plates with 96 Reaktionsnäpfen with flat bottom Becton Dickinson Labware, Lincoln Park, NJ distributed. Am nächsten Tag wurde ein gleiches Volumen Selektionsmedium zu jedem Reaktionsapf hinzugegeben.

The next day, an equal volume of selection medium was added to each Reaktionsapf. The selection medium consisted of 0. Die Fusionsplatten wurden 7 bis 10 Tage lang mit zweifachem Wechsel des Mediums während dieser Zeit inkubiert; The fusion plates were incubated with two-fold change of medium during this time 7 to 10 days; nach jedem Flüssigkeitswechsel wurde HAT-Selektionsmedium verwendet.

Nitrocellulose membranes were 9 x 12 cm; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. In each reaction cup twenty-five ng of sHuEPOR was added Charge 4 and sucked to be bound by the nitrocellulose membrane. Die Blockierlösung wurde aus den Näpfen abgesaugt und der Vorgang ein zweites Mal wiederholt, um ein vollständiges Blockieren von nicht-spezifischen Stellen auf der Membran sicherzustellen.

The blocking solution was aspirated from the wells and the procedure repeated a second time to ensure complete blocking of nonspecific sites on the membrane. This was followed by 3 washes through the membrane with D-PBS containing 0.

Next, ninety-five ul of the EIA-positive hybridoma conditioned medium was added and incubated at RT for 45 minutes to each reaction cup. In each well were one hundred. Fünfzehn Sekunden später wurde der Film aus den Filmkassetten entnommen und entwickelt. Fifteen seconds later, the film was removed from the film cassettes and developed. Further, this motorcycle departs from the typical Japanese mass-production practice by using a great deal of human labor on each unit, such as the FRP cowling and windscreen being laid up by hand.

The Honda VFRR is one potent package and has been designed to be very competitive on racing tracks in stock form, yet remain street legal. It will remain a desirable and elusive high performance bike for years to come.

The Ninja H2R was developed with input from many of the companies in the larger Kawasaki Heavy Industry group, and its name is a composite of two legendary Kawasaki bikes: The Ninja H2R not only looks the part with a combination of bare carbon fiber and exquisite mirrored finish black chrome parts, it also has mind-blowing specs. It generates a hair-raising hp-plus from its supercharged cc inline-4, which it translates into other-worldly acceleration. It is also chock-full of up-to-date electronics for the track: With the addition of rider Shinya Nakano in , the team kept improving and became capable of challenging the top teams for race honors.

Nakano rode the lime-green, cc-engined machine to a second place podium finish at Round 8 in the Netherlands for his best finish of the MotoGP season. Rear suspension feature realistic nut fastener. Wrench tool is conveniently included to aid assembly. Synthetic rubber racing slick tires with Bridgestone markings provide an authentic race feel.

Markings for both Shinya Nakano's No. It attracted much attention due to its impressive design and specifications. The ZZR had such a great road presence and strong character, that it exceeded expected sales forecasts. In America it was given the official name "ZX" but is more widely recognized by its nickname "Ninja". The ZX is currently known as the world's most powerful sports motorcycle. The motorcycle also featured a tandem seat fairing and an under diffuser.

In addition to the standard coloring, a fire pattern livery was given to the American market for special use. Zur Fertigstellung werden separat erhältliche Farben, Klebstoff und Kleinwerkzeug benötigt.

Man has always been able to adapt his tools for specific needs, and as the motorcycle became more and more a sport, or leisure transportation vehicle, it has been designed for more specific purposes. The off road, touring, motocross and speed bikes as well as the basic transportation motorcycle can be seen in most countries, but America seems to have a certain styling all its own.

This so called "Chopper style" came about during the mid 's from the many modified Harley's done by members of the many motorcycle clubs around the country. There are many long straight stretches of good, high speed roadways in America, and to sit back comfortably, with feet resting on forward pedals and sitting on a very relaxing saddle, brought about these modifications.

The Yamaha Company of Japan is well known for quality bikes around the world, and they have been making bikes for specific areas for years. The Yamaha XS Special released in had the American look, and since then this company has marketed bikes with similar styling. The XV Virago is their latest, large bore, American styled motorcycle and sure to become popular. Its front wheel caster angle of 32 degrees provides an extended wheel base of mm, making its straight running ability superb. The wide, pull back type of handle bars and the forward placed foot rests, allow the rider to sit up as if he was on a horse.

A separate looking, loose cushion seat is almost like sitting on a sofa, and it is positioned at a height of only mm. The 70hp cc twin cylinder is in the "V" format and transmits its power via an enclosed drive shaft for quiet, maintenance free operation. The bike comes with much chrome and lots of gold plating, but it is done in such a manner that the bike does not look gaudy. It is a luxurious and comforta. Sporting a powerful cc engine, it has the compact construction of a cc bike. The YZF-R1 was developed for maximum possible cornering ability in a production motorcycle.

With a cc water-cooled, four stroke, 4-cylinder, 5-valve engine and adopting a redesigned EXUP exhaust system, it pumps out hp of high-intensity power. Subtle throttle control makes both superb acceleration response and rhythmic cornering a reality. The Deltabox II aluminum frame was sought after not only for its rigidity, but more so for its moderate flexibility during tight cornering.

With the addition of a long span aluminum swing arm, high control ability has been achieved. By adopting an upside-down front fork, stroke distance has been increased and traction heightened. Boasting a sharp form with multi-reflector lights, the YZF-R1 has been given an unprecedented style. From the contact points between the rider and motorcycle, right down to the material used in the seat and tank, the YZF-R1 has been thoroughly studied.

Of course, the abundance of high precision and high quality parts goes without saying. Designed to cruise at high speeds on winding roads, the YZF-R1 shatters expectations about large exhaust engine motorcycles.

Yamaha has expanded the possibilities of a cc bike. It was designed as a circuit motorcycle, and its design and technology were heavily influenced by data harvested from the YZR-M1 MotoGP bike. Bundeswehr Besatz Leopard 2 Art. It was first assigned to units from June and saw action in Normandy, the Ardennes Offensive and the Eastern Front as Nazi German forces were worn down towards the end of the conflict.

As such, it features a realistic suspension system that allows movement. At the request of various divisions in North Africa for a vehicle suitable for the desert, a Continental balloon tire equipped version went into production from Two types of balloon tires, a grooved and an ungrooved version were used. Because the tires were wider than normal tires, a spacer to raise the height of a spare tire attachment was added to the hood of the car.

Some of the balloon tire equipped Type 82 were even used in Italy after the fighting in North Africa stopped in May of After the poor performance of the Kubelwagen Type 62, an improved model designated Type 82 went into mass production in The Kubelwagen Type 82 featured a trustworthy 4-cylinder, horizontally opposed, air-cooled engine, capable of Over 50, Kubelwagens were produced by the war's end.

From the searing heat of the North African Front to the blistering cold of the Russian Front, the Kubelwagen Type 82 was used for reconnaissance and communications purposes. Strengthening pressed lines have been accurately reproduced. The simplified, defensively improved Ausf. J was one of the final Pz. IV variants, fighting through to the end of the war as the core of German tank units, along with the Panther and King Tiger.

The M1 Abrams has been around since the early s, receiving constant upgrades to ensure that it stays at the cutting edge of military technology. M1A2s were introduced from and developed as next generations of the tank, chock full of the front-line technology and bringing the M1 into the digital age. Metal parts recreate drive sprockets, idler wheels, suspension parts and more.

Although held domestically, this unique series saw many F1 drivers in attendance and quickly gained popularity due to the dynamic performances of the high-powered machines. The following year, he drove the M6A and won the championship, which led to the team's successful period.

In , the team entered the M8A which was lighter, had enhanced aerodynamics, and adapted the same monocoque structure of F1 machines of the day with an engine firmly connected to the rear bulkhead. The wedge-shaped body produced an increased down force effect and featured air intakes with NASA ducts. It was powered by a hp Chevrolet V8 7-liter engine with eight 40cm long air funnels. In this six race series, D. McLaren drove the M8A and took 3 and 1 wins respectively to dominate the season.

Despite the tragic test drive accident that involved B. The Tamiya model of this iconic race car was originally released in as a motorized kit. The re-release is a static model only and the decals have been created by renowned decal maker Cartograf.

Specifically, this replica kit recreates the car that won the opening round of the Australian G. With regulations promoting greater aerodynamic downforce and mechanical grip, Scuderia Ferrari came up with the sleek SF70H body featuring a lengthened nose, arrow-shaped front wing, engine cover fin and revamped side pods.

Powered by the 1. This set is perfect for models depicted from the early 's to the early 's. In addition, the Driven by former F1 drivers Nicola Larini and Alessandro Nannini, they immediately established themselves as a championship contender and eventually won the coveted title.

Particularly impressive was the bright blue Calsonic Skyline, which achieved five of the six victories to take the series championship. The R33 was based on the 4WD production car, but was instead equipped with rear wheel drive. Compared to its predecessor, the R33, the R34 was constructed more compactly, with a narrow wheelbase.

It was developed to take advantage of the reinforced chassis used on the production model brought out in January of that year. Except for the roof, the body was completely remade in carbon fiber and equipped with a large, curved wing on the rear- just one example of its aerodynamic and stylish form.

Undergoing constant improvements since , the inline, 6-cylinder DOHC twin turbo engine of the R34 is maximized with a 6-speed sequential transmission and rear wheel drive.

In addition to the highly modified Japanese cars, the super cars of Europe, like Ferrari, Lamborghini and Porsche, vie for the title. During the season Toyota entered a fleet of their race tuned Supra GT's into this popular event. Packed into the Supra look alike body shell was Toyota's latest racing technology. A 2,cc, 4-cylinder turbocharged powerplant was taken from Toyota's Eagle Mk.

The X-Trac developed sequential 6-speed gearbox efficiently transmitted this engine's awesome power to the rear wheels. Four wheel double wishbone suspension components were taken from another Toyota prototype racer, the TS The body shell was extensively modified to obtain even better aerodynamics.

Additional air intakes and outlets, oversized fenders and a huge rear spoiler, gave its massive silhouette and even more aggressive appearance. Four different racing teams used the Supra during the '95 season and among them, Tom's was sponsored by Castrol. Driven by skilled drivers Sekiya and Krumm, the Castrol Tom's Supra pleased the racing fans with its outstanding performance throughout the season.

Despite a rumored price tag of 2. This track-only car, not intended for competition, has a design without restrictions for homologation and street-legality, etc. A thumping V12 engine delivers hp, plus hp from the electric motor. Top of the range aerodynamics are provided by the sleek LaFerrari styling form with the mesmerizing new rear spoiler design catching the eye at even a brief glance. Even the slick tires are super hi-tech, with sensors providing feedback that helps the traction control get the most out of the car.

New Part Features New spoiler parts are integrated into the rear fenders. Gull wing doors may be opened. The new interior is crisply depicted, including updated seat. Das Bausatzmodell verfügt über zahlreiche Detaillösungen.

Bis ins kleinste Detail wurden Innenraum, Karosserie mit Lüftungsgittern sowie der Unterboden samt Fahrwerk und Leichtmetallfelgen nachgebildet. Klarglasteile für Frontscheinwerfer und Fensterscheiben, rote Glasteile für Rücklichter sowie metallbeschichtete Spiegel- und Ferrari-Logoaufkleber sorgen für eine realistische Erscheinung. Zahlreiche technische Lösungen stammen aus der Formel 1. The full-size car is a highly technical and utterly thrilling supercar.

With weight-saving construction, a hybrid powertrain that has three electric motors and a mid-mounted twin-turbo 3. The power plant is mated to a nine-speed dual-clutch automatic, which moves an all-wheel drive train.

September of saw the sensational rebirth of this type, with the announcement of the S Futuristic headlights wrap around the side, appearing to be pulled back, poised for speed. The naturally aspirated 2. The sturdy body and superior road handling, meshed with a four-wheel double wishbone suspension and a newly developed 6-speed manual transmission, offer high tractability and synthesis between car and driver.

The inside of the cabin features bucket seats, state of the art digital indicators, and a red button for starting the engine. Of course, the impact safe design, air bag, and all the other safety features of modern sports cars have also been thoroughly considered. Developed in celebration of Honda's 50th anniversary, the S will surely take it place as the cc sports car to beat in the 21st century. It was launched in March The S was the first Honda available in two trim levels. During its production run up to , the model styling would remain pretty much the same, with the most notable changes coming to the front grille, bumper, and headlights.

The S got 57hp out of a cc 4-cylinder DOHC engine that could hold its own compared with racing engines, and it featured a motorcycle style chain-driven rear wheel drive. Exports to Europe followed as the S quickly gained respect, gaining popularity as a highly lightweight and speedy sports car.

It was also to prove a success in races both inside and outside of Japan.