When China's economy gradually opened in the s, the RMB was devalued in order to improve the competitiveness of Chinese exports. Keep up the great work! Und das alles für Sie völlig kostenlos und unverbindlich.
I had an array of arrays and needed to find the key of an element by comparing actual reference. This function performs reference sniffing in order to return the key for an element that is exactly a reference of needle. Example of a recursive binary search that returns the index rather than boolean.
Despite PHP's amazing assortment of array functions and juggling maneuvers, I found myself needing a way to get the FULL array key mapping to a specific value. This function does that, and returns an array of the appropriate keys to get to said first value occurrence. For that, I wrote a 2nd function to pull the value that was mapped above. The following works as expected. Is this intentional behaviour? The output is an array. When searching for a string and the array contains 0 zero , the string is casted to int by the type-casting which is always 0 perhaps the opposite is the proper behaviour, the array value 0 should have been casted to string.
That produces unexpected results if strict comparison is not used: A variation of previous searches that returns an array of keys that match the given value: There is no function to count the occurences of needle in haystack, so I made my own one Sometimes you need to find a given value in a sorted array or - if not found - detect the place where it should be.
I've tweaked greenmr's code a little: Im Herbst notierte der Preis für eine Feinunze Gold bei 1. Die Notierungen für das gelbe Edelmetall entfernten sich in den vergangenen Jahren weit von diesem Rekordstand. Optionsscheine stellen die Klassiker unter den Hebelprodukten für Privatanleger dar. Der Reiz liegt in Um sich ein Bild von der aktuellen Bewertung und dem möglichen Kursverhalten eines Optionsscheins zu Der Optionsscheinpreis unterliegt, neben der Kursentwicklung des Basiswertes, weiteren Einflussfaktoren Die Aktienfavoriten für Krisenwährung auf dem Vormarsch?
Deutsche Börse Cash Market: Mehr ausgeführte Geschäfte an der Frankfurter Zertifikatebörse - Zertifikatenews. Unlimited Turbo Long Zertifikat auf Netflix: Aktie wird in Boden gestampft - Zertifikateanalyse. In July , the daily trading price of the U.
Exchange will only proceed if the applicant appears in person at the relevant bank, and presents their passport or Chinese ID; these deals are being centrally registered. This stringent management of the currency leads to a bottled-up demand for exchange in both directions.
It is viewed as a major tool to keep the currency peg, preventing inflows of ' hot money '. A shift of Chinese reserves into the currencies of their other trading partners has caused these nations to shift more of their reserves into dollars, leading to no great change in the value of the renminbi against the dollar.
Renminbi futures are traded at the Chicago Mercantile Exchange. The futures are cash-settled at the exchange rate published by the People's Bank of China. Scholarly studies suggest that the yuan is undervalued on the basis of purchasing power parity analysis.
One study suggests a It had not been this low since December Before , the Chinese renminbi had little to no exposure in the international markets because of strict government controls by the central Chinese government that prohibited almost all export of the currency, or use of it in international transactions.
Transactions between Chinese companies and a foreign entity were generally denominated in US dollars. With Chinese companies unable to hold US dollars and foreign companies unable to hold Chinese yuan, all transactions would go through the People's Bank of China. Once the sum was paid by the foreign party in dollars, the central bank would pass the settlement in renminbi to the Chinese company at the state-controlled exchange rate. In June the Chinese officials announced a pilot scheme where business and trade transactions were allowed between limited businesses in Guangdong province and Shanghai , and only counterparties in Hong Kong , Macau , and select ASEAN nations.
Proving a success,  the program was further extended to 20 Chinese provinces and counterparties internationally in July , and in September it was announced that the remaining 11 Chinese provinces would be included. In steps intended to establish the renminbi as an international reserve currency , China has agreements with Russia , Vietnam , Sri Lanka , Thailand , and Japan , allowing trade with those countries to be settled directly in renminbi instead of requiring conversion to US dollars, with Australia and South Africa to follow soon.
Currency restrictions regarding renminbi-denominated bank deposits and financial products were greatly liberalized in July To meet IMF requirements, China gave up some of its tight control over the currency.
The two special administrative regions , Hong Kong and Macau , have their own respective currencies, according to the " one country, two systems " principle and the basic laws of the two territories.
Banks in Macau can issue credit cards based on the renminbi, but not loans. Renminbi-based credit cards cannot be used in Macau's casinos. The Republic of China, which governs Taiwan , believes wide usage of the renminbi would create an underground economy and undermine its sovereignty.
These renminbi must be converted to the New Taiwan dollar at trial exchange sites in Matsu and Kinmen. The renminbi circulates  in some of China's neighbors, such as Pakistan , Mongolia   and northern Thailand. Since , RMB-nominated bonds are issued outside mainland China; these are colloquially called " dim sum bonds ". Beijing has allowed renminbi-denominated financial markets to develop in Hong Kong as part of the effort to internationalise the renminbi.
Since currency flows in and out of mainland China are still restricted, RMB traded in off-shore markets, such as the Hong Kong market, can have a different value to RMB traded on the mainland.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the unit of currency, see Yuan currency. For Ancient Chinese currency, see Ancient Chinese coinage. History of Chinese currency. Internationalization of the renminbi. Archived from the original on 20 March Michigan Journal of Business. Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication. Triennial Central Bank Survey. Bank for International Settlements.
Retrieved 22 March Archived from the original on 16 March Treasury chief says he shares Congress' ire over dollar peg". Archived from the original on 10 April The Wall Street Journal.
The qualified foreign institutional investor QFII programme started in and allowed licensed foreign institutional investors a quota to buy Chinese-listed A-shares previously only available to domestic investors.
Archived from the original on 5 July Retrieved 10 October National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on The two countries agreed to allow direct renminbi-sterling trading in Shanghai and offshore, making the pound the fourth currency to trade directly against the renminbi, while Chinese banks will be permitted to set up branches in London.
Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 22 December The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 10 June Central Bank of Sri Lanka. Archived from the original PDF on 2 February Retrieved 24 January Weighted for the reserves after the US dollar volatility. Archived from the original on 26 September Retrieved 30 April Retrieved 22 August Archived from the original on 1 October