We argue that prenatal screening and specifically NIPT for Down syndrome can be considered a form of contemporary eugenics, in that it effaces, devalues, and possibly prevents the births of people with the condition. Das entspricht einem Rückgang seit dem University of Chicago Press. Negative eugenics aimed to eliminate, through sterilization or segregation, those deemed physically, mentally, or morally "undesirable". War Against the Weak.
Der Gewinn seit Oktober liegt bei ,9 Prozent. September fiel der Weltindex bis zum März auf einen Tiefststand von ,79 Punkten. Das war ein Rückgang seit März um 50,9 Prozent. April bedeutete das Ende der Talfahrt. Januar beendete der Index den Handel mit 1. Das war seit März ein Anstieg um ,7 Prozent. Quartal wirkte sich die Krise zunehmend auf die Realwirtschaft aus. In Folge brachen die Aktienkurse weltweit ein. Einen neuen Tiefststand erzielte der Index am 9.
März , als er den Handel mit ,64 Punkten beendete. Das entspricht einem Rückgang seit dem Oktober um 59,1 Prozent. März markiert den Wendepunkt der Talfahrt. Ab dem Frühjahr war der Index wieder auf dem Weg nach oben. April stieg er um ,6 Prozent auf einen Schlussstand von 1. Oktober beendete der Index den Handel bei 1. Der Verlust seit dem Höchststand am April beträgt 22,6 Prozent.
Januar schloss der Index bei 1. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. In anderen Projekten Commons. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Dezember um Historically, the term eugenics has referred to everything from prenatal care for mothers to forced sterilization and euthanasia. Haldane wrote that "the motor bus, by breaking up inbred village communities, was a powerful eugenic agent.
Edwin Black , journalist and author of War Against the Weak , claims eugenics is often deemed a pseudoscience because what is defined as a genetic improvement of a desired trait is often deemed a cultural choice rather than a matter that can be determined through objective scientific inquiry.
Historically, this aspect of eugenics was tainted with scientific racism and pseudoscience. Early eugenists were mostly concerned with factors of perceived intelligence that often correlated strongly with social class. Eugenics also had a place in medicine.
In his lecture "Darwinism, Medical Progress and Eugenics", Karl Pearson said that everything concerning eugenics fell into the field of medicine. He basically placed the two words as equivalents. He was supported in part by the fact that Francis Galton, the father of eugenics, also had medical training.
Eugenic policies have been conceptually divided into two categories. Possible approaches include financial and political stimuli, targeted demographic analyses, in vitro fertilization, egg transplants, and cloning. Negative eugenics aimed to eliminate, through sterilization or segregation, those deemed physically, mentally, or morally "undesirable".
This includes abortions, sterilization, and other methods of family planning. Jon Entine claims that eugenics simply means "good genes" and using it as synonym for genocide is an "all-too-common distortion of the social history of genetics policy in the United States".
According to Richard Lynn , eugenics may be divided into two main categories based on the ways in which the methods of eugenics can be applied. The first major challenge to conventional eugenics based upon genetic inheritance was made in by Thomas Hunt Morgan.
He demonstrated the event of genetic mutation occurring outside of inheritance involving the discovery of the hatching of a fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster with white eyes from a family with red eyes. The heterozygote test is used for the early detection of recessive hereditary diseases, allowing for couples to determine if they are at risk of passing genetic defects to a future child.
Recessive traits can be severely reduced, but never eliminated unless the complete genetic makeup of all members of the pool was known, as aforementioned. As only very few undesirable traits, such as Huntington's disease, are dominant, it could be argued [ by whom?
There are examples of eugenic acts that managed to lower the prevalence of recessive diseases, although not influencing the prevalence of heterozygote carriers of those diseases. The elevated prevalence of certain genetically transmitted diseases among the Ashkenazi Jewish population Tay—Sachs , cystic fibrosis , Canavan's disease , and Gaucher's disease , has been decreased in current populations by the application of genetic screening.
Pleiotropy occurs when one gene influences multiple, seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits , an example being phenylketonuria , which is a human disease that affects multiple systems but is caused by one gene defect. Pekalski uses the example of a coercive government eugenics program that prohibits people with myopia from breeding but has the unintended consequence of also selecting against high intelligence since the two go together. Eugenic policies could also lead to loss of genetic diversity , in which case a culturally accepted "improvement" of the gene pool could very likely—as evidenced in numerous instances in isolated island populations —result in extinction due to increased vulnerability to disease, reduced ability to adapt to environmental change, and other factors both known and unknown.
A long-term, species-wide eugenics plan might lead to a scenario similar to this because the elimination of traits deemed undesirable would reduce genetic diversity by definition.
Miller claims that, in any one generation, any realistic program should make only minor changes in a fraction of the gene pool, giving plenty of time to reverse direction if unintended consequences emerge, reducing the likelihood of the elimination of desirable genes. While the science of genetics has increasingly provided means by which certain characteristics and conditions can be identified and understood, given the complexity of human genetics, culture, and psychology, at this point no agreed objective means of determining which traits might be ultimately desirable or undesirable.
Some diseases such as sickle-cell disease and cystic fibrosis respectively confer immunity to malaria and resistance to cholera when a single copy of the recessive allele is contained within the genotype of the individual.
Reducing the instance of sickle-cell disease genes in Africa where malaria is a common and deadly disease could indeed have extremely negative net consequences. However, some genetic diseases cause people to consider some elements of eugenics. Societal and political consequences of eugenics call for a place in the discussion on the ethics behind the eugenics movement.
Advances in science have changed eugenics. In the past, eugenics had more to do with sterilization and enforced reproduction laws.
With this change, however, there are ethical concerns which lack adequate attention, and which must be addressed before eugenic policies can be properly implemented in the future. Sterilized individuals, for example, could volunteer for the procedure, albeit under incentive or duress, or at least voice their opinion. The unborn fetus on which these new eugenic procedures are performed cannot speak out, as the fetus lacks the voice to consent or to express his or her opinion.
A common criticism of eugenics is that "it inevitably leads to measures that are unethical". In his book Enough: Staying Human in an Engineered Age , environmental ethicist Bill McKibben argued at length against germinal choice technology and other advanced biotechnological strategies for human enhancement.
He writes that it would be morally wrong for humans to tamper with fundamental aspects of themselves or their children in an attempt to overcome universal human limitations, such as vulnerability to aging , maximum life span and biological constraints on physical and cognitive ability. Attempts to "improve" themselves through such manipulation would remove limitations that provide a necessary context for the experience of meaningful human choice.
He claims that human lives would no longer seem meaningful in a world where such limitations could be overcome with technology. Even the goal of using germinal choice technology for clearly therapeutic purposes should be relinquished, since it would inevitably produce temptations to tamper with such things as cognitive capacities.
He argues that it is possible for societies to benefit from renouncing particular technologies, using as examples Ming China , Tokugawa Japan and the contemporary Amish. Some, for example Nathaniel C. Comfort from Johns Hopkins University , claim that the change from state-led reproductive-genetic decision-making to individual choice has moderated the worst abuses of eugenics by transferring the decision-making from the state to the patient and their family.
In a co-authored publication by Keele University, they stated that "[e]ugenics doesn't seem always to be immoral, and so the fact that PGD, and other forms of selective reproduction, might sometimes technically be eugenic, isn't sufficient to show that they're wrong. In their book published in , From Chance to Choice: Genetics and Justice , bioethicists Allen Buchanan, Dan Brock, Norman Daniels and Daniel Wikler argued that liberal societies have an obligation to encourage as wide an adoption of eugenic enhancement technologies as possible so long as such policies do not infringe on individuals' reproductive rights or exert undue pressures on prospective parents to use these technologies in order to maximize public health and minimize the inequalities that may result from both natural genetic endowments and unequal access to genetic enhancements.
Original position , a hypothetical situation developed by American philosopher John Rawls , has been used as an argument for negative eugenics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the album by Malignancy, see Eugenics album.
Alternative medicine Quackery Health fraud History of alternative medicine Rise of modern medicine Pseudoscience Antiscience Skepticism Skeptical movement.
Fringe medicine and science. Alternative medical systems Mind—body intervention Biologically-based therapy Manipulative methods Energy therapy. We put down mad dogs; we kill the wild, untamed ox; we use the knife on sick sheep to stop their infecting the flock; we destroy abnormal offspring at birth; children, too, if they are born weak or deformed, we drown.
Yet this is not the work of anger, but of reason - to separate the sound from the worthless. Ableism Biological determinism Culling Directed evolution transhumanism Dor Yeshorim Eugenic feminism Eugenics in Mexico Eugenics in the United States Euthenics Genetic determinism Genetic discrimination Genetic enhancement Human enhancement In vitro embryo selection preimplantation genetic diagnosis New eugenics Life unworthy of life Mendelian traits in humans Prevention of rare diseases Sterilization Social Darwinism Somatotype and constitutional psychology.
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Retrieved 2 January XII "Traitors and deserters are hanged on trees; the coward, the unwarlike, the man stained with abominable vices, is plunged into the mire of the morass, with a hurdle put over him. Bodies in the Bog and the Archaeological Imagination. University of Chicago Press. The American Journal of Insanity. Retrieved 2 May Alder Blumer, Eugenics, and U. Psychiatry and Eugenics in the United States and Canada — Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain.
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Social History of Medicine. Social Darwinism in European and American Thought. Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, — The United States of Sterilization. In Bashford, Alison; Levine, Philippa. To encourage the expectation that the sterilization of defectives will "solve the problem of hereditary defects, close up the asylums for feebleminded and insane, do away with prisons, is only to subject society to deception".
Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics. University of California Press, The Catholic Church and the Race Question pdf. Retrieved 3 July The State is not entitled to deprive an individual of his procreative power simply for material eugenic purposes. But it is entitled to isolate individuals who are sick and whose progeny would inevitably be seriously tainted.
The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters. Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society. A Very Short Introduction'. Killing members of the group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.
Article 3, Section 2. Retrieved 30 August Laws about eugenics in China". From disease prevention to customised conception" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 18 October Retrieved 18 September Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 22 October However, it impinges upon the principle of respect for human dignity in several ways.
It weakens the idea that the differences among human beings, regardless of the measure of their endowment, are exactly what the recognition of their equality presupposes and therefore protects. It introduces the risk of new forms of discrimination and stigmatization for those who cannot afford such enhancement or simply do not want to resort to it.
The arguments that have been produced in favour of the so-called liberal eugenics do not trump the indication to apply the limit of medical reasons also in this case. Cloning and Beyond in a Brave New World. Disability and the Future of Prenatal Screening". AMA Journal of Ethics.
Retrieved 2 September We argue that prenatal screening and specifically NIPT for Down syndrome can be considered a form of contemporary eugenics, in that it effaces, devalues, and possibly prevents the births of people with the condition. Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development.
Retrieved 28 November Archived from the original on 24 January Glimpses of the Cosmos. Retrieved 11 April Productionism, Population, and National Welfare. Retrieved 16 January As an applied science, thus, the practice of eugenics referred to everything from prenatal care for mothers to forced sterilization and euthanasia.
Galton divided the practice of eugenics into two types—positive and negative—both aimed at improving the human race through selective breeding.